Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar calendar. Traditionally, it’s start is marked by the local sighting of the new moon. It is one of the five months in the Islamic calendar for which attempting to sight the new moon is a requirement for at least some members of the community to perform (i.e. wajib kifaya), the other months being Sha‘ban, Shawwal, Dhul Qa‘dah & Dhul Hijjah. It is significant to note that Ramadan is the only month for which the witnessing of the new crescent by only one just person, male or female, is sufficient.
“The month of Ramadan in which was sent down the Quran. the guidance for mankind, the direction and the clear criteria so whoever among you witnesses this month, must fast for the (whole) month; and whoever is sick or on a journey, may fast the same number in other days; Allah desires ease for you and does not desire hardship for you – so that you complete the count (of fasts), and glorify Allah’s greatness for having guided you, and so that you may be grateful.”